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Heather WoltersDanielle AngersChristopher GonzalesThomas GeraghtyShannon DesrosiersAdam ClemensPatricia KannapelPeggy Golfin
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This study supports Army Resilience Directorate (ARD) initiatives to develop integrated prevention strategies that enhance protective factors and mitigate the risk factors associated with multiple harmful behaviors—including suicide, substance misuse, domestic violence, sexual harassment and assault, discrimination, and extremism—at appropriate touchpoints across Soldiers’ careers. This approach aligns with recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and recent efforts within the Department of Defense and the Army to address these issues. The ARD asked CNA to assist the Army in better understanding shared risk and protective factors associated with two or more of the harmful behaviors listed above. Specifically, ARD asked CNA to identify shared risk and protective factors at each level of a socio-ecological model (SEM) that considers influences on behavior at the individual, interpersonal, community, and society levels.
A previous CNA report addressed two key questions: (1) What risk and protective factors are associated with the target harmful behaviors at each level of an Army-specific SEM?, and (2) what approaches and strategies have been shown to help prevent two or more of the target harmful behaviors? This report examines existing Army prevention programs for their alignment with the Army SEM and effective prevention principles. A subsequent report will identify barriers to and opportunities for integration and make recommendations for developing an integrated prevention approach.

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DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited.


  • Pages: 132
  • Document Number: DRM-2022-U-032762-Final
  • Publication Date: 1/30/2023