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Written testimony by Dr. Larry Lewis for the UK Parliament

SUMMARY: Any effort to assess the effectiveness of UK military operations in support of partner forces retaking Mosul and Raqqa should include consideration of the civilian toll from those operations. The UK Ministry of Defence (MOD) has repeatedly said that it does  everything possible” to avoid civilian casualties. But more can be done. This paper addresses how the UK government can learn from the challenges seen in Mosul and Raqqa and improve in avoiding, responding to, and acknowledging civilian casualties. It is a path toward keeping the promise of doing “everything possible.” 

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Cleared for Public Release.


  • Pages:
  • Document Number: DMM-2024-U-037496-Final
  • Publication Date: 1/30/2024