China's Presence in the Middle East and Western Indian Ocean: Beyond Belt and Road
Authors: Jeffrey Becker, Erica Downs, Ben DeThomas, Patrick deGategno
Over the past decade, China's presence in the Middle East and Indian Ocean has expanded signiﬁcantly. While great attention has been paid to China's growing economic presence as part of Beijing's Belt and Road Initiative, in reality, China's activities in the region had been increasing well before the start of Xi Jinping's signature policy initiative. Moreover, this growth has occurred across a wide range of domains, including military, diplomatic, economic, and even informational.
How is China's presence in the Middle East and Western Indian Ocean evolving, and what does it mean for the United States and its equities in the region? This study examines China's growing presence in 23 states throughout the Middle East, East Africa, and Western Indian Ocean. It analyzes the drivers of China's growing presence in this region, as well as China's various diplomatic, informational, military, and economic domains. By doing so, this study seeks to move the discussion of China's growing global activities beyond discussions of Belt and Road, provide a more comprehensive understanding of how China's presence in the Middle East and Western Indian Ocean region is evolving, and improve our understanding of what these changes mean for the U.S. Navy and U.S. national security interests more broadly.
SUMMARY VIDEO describes how the People's Liberation Army is participating in—and beneﬁting from—China's growing regional presence.
AT A GLANCE highlights the military, diplomatic, economic and information aspects that strategically support Chinese foreign policy in the Middle East and Western Indian Ocean region.
Copyright: CNA Corporation
Document Number: DRM-2018-U-018309-Final2
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