Nuclear weapons may create greater space for smaller powers to engage in coercive attacks and even limited military operations at lower levels of escalation. This study explores this phenomenon through examination of two case studies: North Korea and Pakistan. The paper addresses key trends and current thinking on nuclear deterrence, reviews recent research on nuclear weapons and coercion, develops testable hypotheses based on this literature, and explores these questions through analysis of North Korean and Pakistani nuclear capabilities, strategy, and doctrine, as well as instances of coercive escalation by both countries. The paper concludes by identifying common themes across the two cases and drawing implications for U.S. policy and military strategy.
As part of its ongoing efforts to stimulate reform-minded dialogue around current issues in policing, CNA Corporation convened an Executive Session on September 7, 2014, to share information about the evolving practice-based research methodologies used to examine police conduct issues.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed a new rule under the Clean Air Act—the Clean Power Plan (CPP)—to control carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from existing stationary electric power plants. In order to better understand the potential impacts of the rule for water consumption and withdrawals in Texas, a state that is experiencing on-going drought, we apply a power generation policy model to evaluate water use along with other economic and environmental indicators. We explore two scenarios: a Baseline scenario and the implementation of the CPP. We find that the state will save water under the CPP and be able to meet the final and interim targets with modest incremental effort.
Decision-makers in Texas must consider how water use in the state will be affected by a new federal policy – the Clean Power Plan (CPP), which aims to reduce CO2 emissions produced by the power sector. While water is a key part of their conversation, the decision-makers are also concerned about how this policy will affect costs in the Texas power sector. Using a model created at CNA Corporation, our researchers looked at how Texas would fare under the new CPP policy.