The U.S. government has described its drone campaign in Pakistan and elsewhere as causing minimal civilian casualties. However, available data–open source data on Pakistan drone strikes, as well as data on air operations in Afghanistan, including drone operations–points to higher casualty numbers than suggested in official statements. Besides their importance to U.S. ethical principles regarding the conduct of war, civilian casualties from U.S. operations also affect national security, fueling threats to the U.S. while simultaneously limiting freedom of action and complicating relations with other nations.
Despite significant decreases in crime nationwide, America continues to experience criminal gun violence at extraordinarily high levels. This spotlight report reviews the common strategies that police have employed across nine sites to reduce and prevent gun crimes and associated violence.
From 2007 through 2008, the city of Lowell, Massachusetts, experienced a 15 percent increase in property crime. The Lowell Smart Policing Initiative (SPI) sought to address drug-related property crime through problem-oriented policing and the SARA model: Scanning, Analysis, Response, and Assessment. A Steering Committee composed of department staff and researchers who were well versed in advanced problem solving led the Lowell SPI. In order to avoid some of the traditional problems with SARA implementation, the Lowell SPI team employed a more sophisticated problem-solving process that assessed the congruence or “fit” among the targeted crime problems and the different elements of the SPI strategy.
This study provides an overview of Trans Sahara Counter Terrorism Partnership (TSCTP) activities, an analysis of the program’s planning and implementation challenges from the strategic to the tactical level, and recommendations that can shape and inform the program to better respond to the region’s ongoing security challenges.