This report begins with a background survey of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), its institutional mechanisms for maintaining the public order of the oceans, and U.S. policy regarding UNCLOS. The second section surveys the three stresses on public order in the oceans and concludes with a discussion of why states are reluctant to arbitrate their ocean disputes—particularly, conflicts over maritime zone boundaries. The third section of the report is a brief survey of international law under UNCLOS and its institutional dispute-settlement mechanisms. Following this survey is a section analyzing the two maritime zone disputes in the Bay of Bengal—Myanmar v. Bangladesh and India v. Bangladesh—submitted to international tribunals for adjudication. The fifth section raises implications of the Bay of Bengal arbitrations for China’s maritime zone disputes with the Philippines in the South China Sea, and with Japan and other coastal states in the East China Sea. The report concludes with some thoughts about the viability of legal-normative approaches to managing public order in the oceans—particularly in the South and East China Seas, in light of China’s strategic political and economic goals.
The literature shows that the best outcomes occur when patients get their health care in high-volume settings. High-volume surgeons are more proficient. High volume hospitals are safer. These findings have changed how civilian health care is delivered. Civilian hospitals, insurance companies, governments, and institutions all focus on volume as an indicator of quality.
The intent of this report is to provide the appropriate type of information—at the appropriate level of granularity—in order to inform U.S. government efforts to develop more effective approaches to countering Boko Haram. The goal is to help U.S. planners and decision-makers understand the conflict as an interconnected system and, eventually, to develop targeted, conflict-sensitive strategies for assisting the Nigerian government. Specifically, this report seeks to diagnose and dissect the conflict by identifying relevant political, economic, social, and security factors at work in northeast Nigeria, by analyzing how key actors mobilize grievances and institutional resiliencies to drive or mitigate conflict, and by forecasting how conflict dynamics might evolve in the future.