Long coastlines, porous borders, a lack of government capacity, weak enforcement mechanisms, corruption, and other factors have enabled illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing to thrive in Somalia’s waters. The same factors have allowed other transnational threats to develop in Somalia—and spread further south into Kenya and Tanzania. This study, which draws on extensive field research along the East African littoral, identifies and analyzes linkages between piracy and IUU fishing. In addition, the report examines the role of the maritime sector in facilitating the illegal movement of drugs, weapons, and people through the region. This study also highlights the role of small vessels in a system that transports terrorists from al-Shabaab, al-Qaeda’s East Africa affiliate, to and from Somalia.
In December 2005, we published the first edition of the CNA Integrated Ship Database (ISDB). Our intent then, as now, was to bring together data on naval ships readily available from separate online government sources into a single combined database tool. We wanted to keep this integrated information current. We wanted to make it readily accessible for analysis and reporting. And finally, we wanted to be able to rapidly respond to requests from our sponsor, from other CNA research scientists and analysts, and from others in government as well. Since 2005, we have published 26 quarterly updates. In this document, we present the update for the third quarter of calendar year 2012.
On November 12, 2013, the People’s Republic of China (PRC) announced the creation of a new “National Security Commission.” Although few details were offered, PRC official sources and commentary by senior PRC security experts provide insight into its purpose and expected achievements. These include: resolving security policy coordination problems, including reducing “stove-piping” in China’s bureaucratic system; steering policy at a high level. This includes discussion about whether foreign NSCs might be a useful model in the Chinese context; addressing a wide array of domestic and international security challenges, ranging from terrorism to the U.S. rebalance to Asia. Overall, there were high expectations that China’s new “NSC” would be able to confront these challenges. Nevertheless, a number of key analytic issues remain, including those related to the body’s leadership, links to other institutions, authority, and scope of responsibilities. Further monitoring and analysis of these issues is necessary.
Historically, the Sunnis in Lebanon have had difficulty raising viable militias. Mainstream leaders have traditionally rejected wholesale military mobilization, preferring to pursue their community’s interests through the political process. Indeed, most of the Sunni fighters in Lebanon today belong to extremist groups, which have thus far failed to garner significant public support. However, there are indications that the calculus for militia building may be changing.