The proper investigation and review of use of force incidents, especially those involving deadly force, can have a significant impact on a police department's legitimacy and relationship with its community. The assessment leading to this report was conducted by the U.S. Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services (COPS Office) and the CNA Corporation at the request of the Spokane (Washington) Police Department, examining the department's policies and procedures to identify areas for improvement and provide recommendations; analyzing a sample of use of force investigations from a five-year period to identify trends, strengths, and weaknesses; examining the role of the ombudsman in use of force investigations; and improving the department's culture as it relates to the use of force to build trust with the community. The goal of the review was ultimately to improve the use of force processes in the Spokane Police Department.
This report describes feedback CNA Corporation obtained during the 2013/14 school year about the strengths and weaknesses of the Florida College and Career Readiness Initiative and ways to increase its effectiveness, particularly as it relates to improving those 12th grade college readiness and success courses.
The Florida College and Career Readiness Initiative is a statewide policy that mandates college placement testing of 11th-graders who meet high school graduation criteria but are unlikely to meet college readiness criteria. Students who score below college-ready on the Postsecondary Education Readiness Test (PERT) are required to take math and English/language arts college readiness and success courses in 12th grade. This report discusses qualitative feedback from students, teachers, district administrators, and college faculty and staff from the 2013/14 school year. It examines how educators perceive the effectiveness of the initiative and barriers to implementation, what the grade 12 courses look like in practice, how K–12 and postsecondary institutions collaborate around the initiative, what types of promising practices Florida’s state colleges use to prepare students for college and careers, and what high school students think could be done to better prepare them for post–high school plans.
This paper reflects on the current state of data on police use of deadly force and calls for the establishment of a National Center for Police Shootings and Deadly Force Research, Training, and Technical Assistance. The authors describe a phased approach for establishing the Center and the benefits it would provide to the greater community of law enforcement practitioners, researchers, oversight agencies, and concerned citizens.